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Title: An experimental design for the optimization of the extraction methods of metallic mobile fractions from environmental solid samples
Authors: Vasile, Gabriela 
Popa, Dana Elena 
Buleandra, Mihaela 
David, Iulia Gabriela 
Keywords: Extraction method;Robustness;Measurement uncertainty;Cadmium and lead mobile forms
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018
The evaluation of the cadmium and lead mobile forms from environmental solid samples provides
information about their mobility and bioavailability. In the present study, the Cd and Pb mobile fractions were
obtained by two modified extraction methods applied to industrial and acidic pH soils or to polluted sediments.
In order to highlight that the extraction procedure does not significantly influence the quantitative atomic absorption spectrometric determination of cadmium and lead, the robustness of the extraction methods was evaluated and proven applying a Youden and Steiner factorial design. Within this experimental design, the shaking rate, the shaking time, and the solid/liquid extraction ratio were modified. The measurement uncertainty of the whole analytical procedure was assessed, the contribution of the factors involved in the extraction process being insignificant compared to the other uncertainty sources. The importance of the study is related to the fact that it proves the applicability in the routine laboratory practice of the modified extraction methods by increasing the extraction ratio following thorough optimization and robustness studies.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol. 190, article no. 609, 2018
ISSN: 0167-6369; DOI: 10.1007/s10661-018-6983-x
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