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Title: Biocide – from legislation to ecological impact
Authors: Lucaciu, Irina 
Keywords: Biocides;Legislation;Pseudomonas aeruginosa;Escherichia coli
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: National Research and Development Institute for Industrial Ecology, INCD-ECOIND
The main objective of the project was the development and laboratory implementation of specific methodologies for bactericidal activity evaluation and toxicity assessment of biocidal products (especially disinfectants), which is a premiere at national level, because until now, there is no laboratory in Romania to perform such tests / evaluations.
Biocides are regulated with “Directive 98/8/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the placing on the market of biocidal products” (BPD), which was replaced by Regulation (EU) No. 528/2012 on Biocidal Products Regulation (BPR), which aimed at the placing on the market and use of biocidal products that are intended to protect humans, animals, materials or articles from harmful organisms. The directive covers 23 different types of biocide products, classified into 4 different groups, of which disinfectants are included in the main group 1.
Antiseptics and disinfectants are used extensively in hospitals and other health care settings, but their antibacterial effectiveness is not always well declared by the manufacturers and consumers find it difficult to choose the right product according to their needs.
The bactericidal activity of disinfectants found in the local market was assessed in accordance with standard method SR EN 1276:2010, related to in vitro activity of the disinfectants and antiseptics against reference bacterial strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15 442; Escherichia coli ATCC 10536). All disinfectants were tested at different concentrations and different contact times. The overall results suggest which was the most effective biocide against all two bacterial strains and the recommended concentration or dilution to be used.
Ecotoxicity tests on aquatic organisms (planktonic and benthic crustaceans), according to OECD Test Guideline 202 (ISO 6341) and ISO 14370 were carried out to assess the toxic effects of the four disinfectants. Daphnia magna and Heterocypris incongruens were used as aquatic invertebrates’ organisms and the median effective concentration (EC50) has been established for each disinfectant.
Methodologies implemented at the laboratory level, ensuring the alignment of Romanian ecotoxicological laboratories to the current global trends regarding new information on the effects of biocidal products on the environment health and, also, support a large number of economic units that produce / import / market biocidal products, facilitating the testing and evaluation of the effects of these products before be placed on the market or used.
Program Nucleu, project code PN 18 05 02 01, 2018.
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